Language Comprehension No. 168; Cradle of Urdu Language and Literature, Burhanpur

Karachi: Respected Tanveer Raza Barkati Sahib from Burhanpur (Madhya Pradesh, India) provides excellent literary and scholarly content. He is always engaged in the above-mentioned literary and academic activities and, including me, he blesses many thirsty people with the transmission of his research efforts.

Some time ago, he was looking for the heirs of a great poet Matiullah Rashid Burhan Puri late (1897-1960) who left the country and came to Pakistan. My attempt was unsuccessful, but even sitting there, he succeeded in this goal. In the research journal ‘Tahqiq’ of University of Sindh, Jam Shuro, there is an article about the late Burhan Puri poet, “List of manuscripts archived by late Allah Rashid Burhan Puri.” Revision: Muhammad Shafi Brohi” was published, while his own scholarly and literary endeavors included a book like ‘Sindhi Saints of Burhanpur known as Tazkira Olya Sindh’, which collected rare Persian letters and other materials.

Hon’ble Tanveer Sahib also inquired me about learning Sindhi language and then started trying on his own. Due to its presence, the heart is also attached to this unique chapter of research. It is a matter of fact that the settlement of Sindhi scholars and Sufis in Burhanpur is still called Sindhipura. Have some fun with a chapter in history.

Two cities in India are called “Dar-ul-Suror” (Darus Surur), one is Burhanpur (South India) and the other is Rampur (North India). Both of them have been the center of service and promotion of Urdu language and literature and even today their name is associated with centuries old history. The Mughal crown prince Shah Jahan had a very special relationship with Burhanpur, he lived here as a worthy governor, general and finally, as a king. And then here he had to suffer the shock of permanent separation from his beloved Queen Mumtaz Mahal.

According to one tradition, after the death of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan’s beloved Queen Mumtaz Mahal, the plan to bury her in the ‘Taj Mahal’ at Burhanpur was abandoned due to the scarcity of marble, so the Queen was temporarily buried there. He was buried in Burhanpur for six months and later, after the completion of the Taj Mahal in Agra, was cremated where he remains to this day.

The matter does not end here, Shah Jahan raised the flag of rebellion against his father, King Jahangir here. It is said that Aurangzeb Alamgir, the son of Shah Jahan, had the element of love in his temperament (according to the requirements of Ahad Shabab) in this city. He became religious by living in the company of the Sophia of this city (this is part of the traditions of Burhan Puri gentlemen) and it happened that “Fatawa Alamgiri” like the great jurisprudential circle of knowledge (Encyclopaedia) like Shaikh Nizamuddin Burhan Puri was also appointed as the supervisor of the project, under whom five or five hundred scholars rendered memorable services in this regard and (according to one tradition) the final form was given by the king of time, Alamgir himself.

Aurangzeb Alamgir stayed here for twenty-six years trying to control the constant rebellions and the main center of the Sultanate was away from Delhi. When it was accepted, Qamaruddin Asif Jah I, the governor of Khandis, rebelled and declared independence. During his forty-year rule, the city set new standards for development.

Among the Sufis who took part in the early development of Urdu were the sages of Burhanpur. Among them, the foremost named Khawaja Nizamuddin Awliya, among the great caliphs, “Burhan-ul-Awliya” Hazrat Sheikh, Shah Burhanuddin Gharib. It belongs to Hanswi (654 AH to 11 Safar al-Muzaffar 738 AH 1337/1338-AD) (may God have mercy on him).

This city is named after him. Born in Hansi, Haryana (India), this famous author was from the family of Imam Azam Abu Hanifa (may God have mercy on him). He died and was buried in Khuldabad, Aurangabad. (Maharashtra, India). According to tradition, his paternal uncle was Khawaja Jamaluddin, the caliph of Baba Farid, while his maternal uncle, Qutbuddin Munoor, was the caliph of Khwaja Nizam.

After studying religious studies at a young age, he traveled to Delhi to seek spiritual blessings from Khwaja Nizam. Initially, Khwaja Nizam appointed him as the caretaker of his kitchen (kitchen), then set his spiritual destination. After this, the Caliphate was granted. According to Dr. Anwarsadeed, he was among the few sages whose traces of Hindi (i.e. ancient Urdu) writing have been discovered (A Brief History of Urdu Literature).

However, I have not found any such writings of Hazrat that I can present here as evidence, despite searching a lot. It is a different thing that three collections of the attachments of this saint were compiled, it is possible that related materials can be found in them. When Hazrat Shah Gharib came here, he The place was a village ‘Basana’ where the passage of pilgrims was located. Hazrat prayed on a smooth stone rock and prayed for the population of that place which was accepted and Burhanpur settled here. This rock was named “Hathia Kharak” and It is still present in the middle of the Tapti river, in the past it used to be on the banks of the river.

The known history of Burhanpur begins from 772 AH (corresponding to 1370 AD) when the area of ​​Asirgarh and Thalanir came to the possession of a mansabdar, Malik Raja Farooqi, as a fief by the Tughluq king Sultan Feroz Shah. The real name of this mansabdar must be something else, otherwise, due to the Farooqi lineage, the prefixes of Malik and Raja seem inappropriate). Khandis (Khandesh) was the capital of the province, which was also named ‘Dandis’ after Prince Daniyal, the son of Mughal Emperor Akbar, but that name did not last long, so it started to be called the same old name.

Khandis was located between the Deccan and Malwa, which today consists of the two districts of Maharashtra, Dhulia and Jalgaon. In ancient times, the Deccan started from Burhanpur, that’s why it was also called the ‘Chapter of the Deccan’. It is said that the Tughlaq period is of great importance in the history of Burhanpur. When Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq established a new city called Daulatabad and declared it as the Dar-ul-Sultant of India, he destroyed the whole of Delhi and settled here. According to him, he visited there. He and his elder brother Munbatuddin, were given the spiritual caliphate of the Deccan. From an incident narrated in the account of Sheikh Gharib, Bibi Aisha, the daughter of Khawaja Fariduddin Ganj Shakar, told him about Bizban Multani ( Saraiki) is proven to speak (God’s mercy upon him).

A great Sufi Sheikh Alauddin Ali bin Husam Muttaqi Burhan Puri was also a resident of the same city, whose books have been published in Arabic language. Another ancient sage Khwaja Syed Hashim Kashmi Badakhshani and the Persian Tazkira written by Burhan Puri are also of historical importance. On which Munir Jahan Malik wrote a PhD thesis under the supervision of Dr. Mohsin Abul Qasimi titled, “Correction of Nasmat al-Quds min Hadaiq Al-Auns” in 1996 and is still unpublished. He was a great Persian poet and the author of ‘Malfuzat-e-Imam-Rabbani-Zubdat al-Maqamaat’.

In his book “Early Age of Urdu, Literary Civilization and Historical Aspect”, the late Honorable Shamsur Rahman Farooqi, the Sufi sage who stayed for a period in Burhanpur, Sheikh Bahauddin Bajan (died 790 AH 1388/A at Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Died : 21 or according to a different tradition, 14 Ziqadah 912 AH / 1506 AD at Burhanpur) has been declared as the first regular “writer” of Urdu (God’s mercy be upon him). Hazrat Sharafuddin Muniri (1263-1381) has passed away in Bihar and before him Amir Khusro and Saad Salman Lahori some time before them. All these details keep coming in my columns). Makhdoom Bajan’s Urdu prose poem has written on the tradition.

In my view, the most important compilation of late Mr. Javed Ansari (Sheikh Abdul Qadir bin Abdul Rahman), provided by my dear friend Tanveer Raza Barkati, is “Tarikh Zarangar Burhanpur. 650 years of historical and literary scenario” (published in December 2021) which is its subject. But it seems to be the first comprehensive book. The latest book by Mr. Javed Ansari, who has a special passion for Persian, is the history of the discovery or recovery of many treasures of Persian in Zarangar Burhanpur (including Hazrat Bajan’s famous book ‘Khazana Rehmat’). There is also a moda related to.

Let me repeat here that one of the five manuscripts of Shah Bajan’s book ‘Khuzana Rahmat’ is preserved in the University of Karachi library. ), published in Daily Express, dated March 14, 2021, received the honor of Khama Farsai about this saint. From the study of other books, it was revealed that the original name of the book is ‘Khazain Rahmatullah’ and this book actually contains eight treasures. Yes, it is attributed to the name of his predecessor Shaykh Rehmatullah Mutawakkul.

Hazrat Bajan’s Persian, Hindi or Hindu and Gujri words are preserved in this book. This poem of Hazrat Bajan was said in honor of Sultan Hussain Shah, the King of Bengal. (poetry in a mixed language formed from
Bajan who covers someone’s faults
Arjuna trembled at this
This sample of his prayers is enough to make the reader wonder:
No one could follow your path
Go ahead, go ahead, get tired
Read Pandit Dhoti
All souls are lost.
All Jogi Jog Basare

The above column by Khaksar, on, while a book on the life of Hazrat Bajan, “Hazrat Shah Bajan”. A Study” (Azakhtar Parvez, Burhanpur: 2005), as well as ‘Shah Bahauddin Bajan. Biography and Gujri (Gujri) Kalam’]by Dr. Sheikh Farid Burhan Puri: 1992 [انٹرنیٹ پر دستیاب ہے۔
حضرت باجن کے بعض مزید اشعار بھی ریختہ کے دل چسپ نمونے ہیں:
یوں باجن ؔ باجے رے اسرار چھاجے رے
مندل من میں دھمکے رباب رنگ میں جھمکے
صوفی اُن پر ٹھُمکے یوں باجنؔ باجے رے
اسرا ر چھاجے رے

حضرت باجن کے شاگرد ومُرید، محدث اعظم شیخ علی متّقی (885ھ تا 975ھ) نے ’کنزالعُمّال‘ نامی مشہور کتاب، نیز کم وبیش سو سے زائد کتب تصنیف وتالیف کیں۔وہ بھی ریختہ گو تھے۔انھوں نے اپنے آخری وقت میں یہ دوہا کہا تھا:
سُن سہیلی، پریم کی باتا یوں مل رہے ہیں، جیوں دودھ نباتا

اختر پرویز صاحب نے انپی کتاب میں اردو کے قدیم ترین ریختہ گو شاعر کا نام شیخ سعدی ؔدکنی برہان پوری دیا ہے جن کا مشہور ترین شعر ہے:
سعدی ؔ غزل انگیختہ، شِیروشکر آمیختہ
دَرریختہ، دُر ریختہ، ہم شعر ہے، ہم گیت ہے

حالانکہ اُن سے قبل امیر خسرو ہو گزرے ہیں۔(یہ وہی ہیں جنھیں ایک عرصے تک سہواً سعدی ؔ شیراز ی سمجھ کر یہ بحث کی جاتی رہی کہ آیا وہ نامورسخنور، کبھی دکن، ہندوستان بھی آیا تھا)

کچھ عرصہ قبل،محترم تنویررضا برکاتی اور اُن کے احباب نے اپنی علمی وادبی سرگرمیوں کے سلسلے میں،دارالسرور ایجوکیشن اینڈ ویلفیئر سوسائٹی برہان پور کے زیر اہتمام آن لائن کانفرنس ’اردو شاعری کے ارتقائی سفر میں باجن کی حصہ داری‘، حضرت کے 530 سالہ عرس کے موقع پرمنعقد کرکے ایک منفرد مثال قایم کی۔

(یہاں ذرا توقف فرمائیں تو یاد دلاؤں کہ ”اردوزبان کی ماں، گوجری؟“ کے عنوان سے زباں فہمی کے تین کالم روزنامہ ایکسپریس میں (تیس اگست، چھے ستمبر اور تیرہ ستمبر دوہزار بیس کو)شایع ہوکر، اُس کی ویب سائٹ ایکسپریس ڈاٹ پی کے کی زینت بن چکے ہیں۔خواہش مند احباب ملاحظہ فرماسکتے ہیں۔اولین قسط کا ایک اقتباس پیش خدمت ہے:

امیر خسرو نے کہا تھا:”گُجری کہ دَرحُسن ولطافت چومہی/آں دیگِ دہی بَرسرِتوچترشہی/ازہر دولت قندوشکر ریزد/ہرگاہ بگوئی ’دیہی لیو، دیہی“۔ (گوجری ادب کی سنہری تاریخ)۔ کس قدر صاف زبان ہے ’دیہی لیویعنی دہی لو، یا، لے لو‘۔ اب آپ اسے گوجری کہیں، قدیم اردو کہیں یا ہندوی، بہرحال اپنے وقت کے عظیم سخنور نے ایک عام گوجری عورت کی شان بیان کرکے لسانیات کا ایک فن پارہ ہمارے لیے چھوڑا۔ امیر خسرو کی ہمہ جہت شخصیت اور ادبی مقام سے متعلق اردو میں تحقیق تشنہ ہے۔ان سے ماقبل ہندوی (یعنی قدیم اردو) کے اولین صاحب دیوان شاعر مسعود سعد سلمان کے دو میں سے ایک بھی دیوان باقی نہیں، ورنہ ہم اپنی زبان کی قدامت، کوئی ایک ہزار سال قبل، غزنوی عہد میں بہ آسانی ثابت کرسکتے تھے۔ امیرخسرو کے بعد، شاہ میراں جی، شاہ باجن، جانم چشتی، سنت کبیر اور اَمین گجراتی کے گوجری کلام پر تحقیق ہنو ز تشنہ ہے)۔

تاریخ زرنگار برہان پور۔650 سالہ تاریخی و ادبی منظر نامہ، بذاتہ، اتنا بڑا علمی کارنامہ ہے کہ محض مندرجات کے جائزے نیز تنقید کے لیے ایک کتاب لکھی جاسکتی ہے۔ اس کتاب میں شامل، شہر برہان پور کے اہل علم وادب کے چُنِیدہ مشاہیر کی فہرست اہل ِ نظر کی توجہ چاہتی ہے۔اردو کے اولین نمایاں سخنو ر وَلی ؔ گجراتی دکنی کے مُرشد(اور بیدلؔ کے شاگرد)سعداللہ گلشنؔ بھی اسی شہر کے متوطن تھے۔تاریخ وسِےَر (سیرت کی جمع) کے نامور عالم، ادیب شاہ معین الدین احمد ندوی کا تعلق بھی اسی شہر سے تھا۔دیگر متنوع مصنفین ومؤلفین میں ہمارے سابق وزیرخارجہ، معروف قانون داں، محترم شریف الدین پیرزادہ شامل ہیں۔خاکسار کی دلی خواہش اور کوشش ہے کہ یہ تحقیقی کتاب پاکستان میں بھی منصہ شہود پر لائی جاسکے۔


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